Chapter 7 - SHOPPING
   
BACKGROUND
OBJECTIVES
 
Policies and Proposals:
GENERAL LOCATION
TOWN CENTRE
TOWN CENTRE FRINGES
DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES
OTHER MAJOR NEW SHOPPING DEVELOPMENT
LOCAL SHOPS
OTHER RETAIL POLICIES
   
   
 
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BACKGROUND
   
7.1 Darlington has been an important market town for at least eight centuries and retailing remains the main economic activity in the town centre today. The town centre is the fifth-largest shopping centre in the North East. It serves a wide sub-region of South Durham and North Yorkshire, encompassing a catchment population of over 275,000. Within the centre are some 500 retail units of all kinds, including around 350 class A1 shops and almost 100,000m2 of gross retail floorspace.
7.2 In character, the central shopping area is essentially compact and traditional, arranged mainly along the historic street pattern within the inner ring road. The privately-owned, enclosed, Cornmill shopping centre, which opened in 1992, injected a substantial element of modern retailing floorspace into the town centre, but because of strong links into the existing main streets did so without detracting from this basic character.
7.3 Shopping in the town centre supports, and is supported by, a full range of ancillary activities. Some, such as cafes, banks and building societies, are more appropriately found inter-mixed in shopping frontages with shops than others, such as offices. Most depend for their long-term health on the continuing success of shopping in attracting people to the centre.
7.4 At one time the town centre met most of the shopping needs of the residents of Darlington. Greater disposable incomes and increased car ownership has led to growing competition for household spending between shopping centres in the region - both ‘traditional’ centres such as Newcastle, Middlesbrough and Stockton and newer out-of-town developments such as the MetroCentre and Teesside Park - and Darlington must continually look to improve its attractiveness in order to compete successfully. At a time when most major centres contain the same national multiple retailers it is particularly important that Darlington retains and enhances the unique aspects of its character.
7.5 Increased mobility has also brought about a growth in shopping facilities outside the town centre, in the form of food superstores, supermarkets and retail warehouses. These developments have been intended to complement the town centre, by concentrating on everyday items and major household goods, rather than compete with it. The food stores mainly support district and local centres which are accessible to all sectors of the population - those travelling on foot or bicycle or by public transport as well as by car.
7.6 At the lowest level of the shopping hierarchy are small local shops, serving neighbourhoods or villages. Around 200 of these survive in the Borough, often providing an invaluable service in the face of competition from larger stores.
 
OBJECTIVES
7.7 The Council’s objectives for shopping, to be pursued through the policies and proposals of the Plan, are:
  i) To ensure that the shopping needs of the residents of Darlington and surrounding area can be met as much as possible from within the town itself, without the requirement to travel regularly to other centres.
  ii) To ensure that the town centre continues to thrive and develop as an attractive and efficient market town and sub-regional shopping centre.
  iii) To ensure that shopping remains the principal economic activity of the town centre, underpinning a full range of complementary activities without being displaced by them.
  iv) To ensure that any retail development which needs to take place outside the town centre does so without threat to the vitality and viability of the centre.
  v) To ensure that the everyday shopping needs of residents can be met conveniently close to their homes from attractive and efficient district and local centres and from small local shops.
 
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Policies and Proposals:
   
GENERAL LOCATION
 
POLICY S1 - New Shopping Development
  SHOPPING DEVELOPMENT WILL BE PERMITTED WITHIN THE TOWN CENTRE, PROVIDED IT IS NOT OF A FORM WHICH WOULD UNDERMINE ITS VITALITY AND VIABILITY. SHOPPING DEVELOPMENT ELSEWHERE IN THE BOROUGH WILL ONLY BE PERMITTED WHERE IT ACCORDS WITH POLICIES S2 AND S9 TO S23 BELOW.
     
7.8 The Borough Council will continue to direct all appropriate retail development, particularly class A1 shops, to the town centre, as defined on the Proposals Map. Sufficient land and buildings exist within the area to meet the likely demands for town centre shopping growth during the Plan period. It needs to be acknowledged, however, that not all kinds of shopping development will always be acceptable in the town centre, for instance if there is conflict with other policies (such as design or traffic considerations) or if a development would be at the expense of other town centre uses which it is desirable to retain. The aim is to protect not existing town centre retail interests per se, but rather the wide range of uses which contribute to the diversity of the town centre, and thus to its vitality and viability. Development outside the centre will be considered only in the circumstances set out in the rest of this chapter.
   
   
TOWN CENTRE
 
POLICY S2 - Safeguarding the Town Centre
  THE COUNCIL WILL SAFEGUARD AND ENHANCE THE VITALITY AND VIABILITY OF THE TOWN CENTRE. RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS OUTSIDE THE TOWN CENTRE WHICH WHEN TAKEN WITH OTHER RECENT AND PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS WOULD UNDERMINE THAT VITALITY AND VIABILITY WILL NOT BE PERMITTED.
   
7.9 The vitality and viability of the town centre does not depend solely on a healthy retail sector but this is the single most important activity, underpinning many others, and the Council will resist any proposals which might jeopardise it. The long-established traditional open and covered market is an important particular component of retail provision, contributing greatly to the character and vitality of the town, and the Council will resist development which would adversely affect it. At the same time the Council will pursue, and support, initiatives which will enhance the town centre, including environmental improvements, town centre management and promotion.
 
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PROPOSAL S3 - Abbott’s Yard Development
  LAND AT ABBOTT’S YARD AND THE ADJACENT BARCLAY’S BANK CAR PARK WILL BE RESERVED FOR NEW SHOPPING DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALE AND CHARACTER WHICH ENHANCES BOTH THE DISTINCTIVE RETAIL ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE TOWN CENTRE AND THE SITE’S SETTING WITHIN THE CONSERVATION AREA. IN PARTICULAR, THE DEVELOPMENT WILL BE EXPECTED TO PROVIDE A RANGE OF MAINLY SMALL UNITS IN A HIGH QUALITY DESIGN WHICH PAYS REGARD TO THE TRADITIONAL FORM OF DARLINGTON’S TOWN CENTRE YARDS. THE DEVELOPMENT WILL BE REQUIRED TO ACCORD WITH AN APPROVED PLANNING BRIEF FOR THE SITE.
   
7.10 As shoppers become increasingly more mobile, able to choose between different shopping centres, it becomes more important than ever to capitalise upon the distinctive character of Darlington as somewhere unique to shop. One of the town’s special characteristics is its historic street pattern, including the narrow yards between High Row and Skinnergate. The yards south of Post House Wynd have survived largely intact (see Policy S7) but much of the area between Post House Wynd and Bondgate was cleared some years ago and serves today as the Abbott’s Yard car park. Car parking was always intended as a temporary use pending redevelopment, and the Council now considers that appropriate development should be carried out during the Plan period.
7.11 The car park is well used but both access and egress are unsatisfactory, bringing vehicles into what are otherwise pedestrian-priority areas in Bondgate and Skinnergate. The site is too valuable and too centrally-located to continue as a permanent car park and would contribute far more to the town centre, both economically and visually, if developed.
7.12 Any redevelopment scheme will need to take into account factors such as the site’s location in the Town Centre Conservation Area, the proximity of listed buildings, the typical traditional form of the town centre yards and the pedestrianisation scheme in operation in the adjoining streets. There may be an opportunity to provide a new small open space as a focal point of the development. The need for parking for people with disabilities will be considered. The Council will prepare a planning brief for the site providing guidance on these and other relevant factors. The precise timing of the redevelopment will depend on the rate of progress in providing alternative car parking (Proposals T19 and T20).
   
 
POLICY S4 - Town Centre Service Uses
  THE LOSS, BY CHANGE OF USE OR REDEVELOPMENT, OF GROUND FLOOR CLASS A1 SHOPS IN THE PRIMARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES OF THE TOWN CENTRE TO BANKS, BUILDING SOCIETIES, ESTATE AGENTS, BETTING OFFICES AND OTHER CLASS A2 SERVICE USES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED. ADDITIONAL A2 USES WILL BE PERMITTED IN THE SECONDARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES PROVIDED THAT THE OVERALL CONCENTRATION OF NON-SHOP USES IN A PARTICULAR LENGTH OF FRONTAGE WOULD NOT BE SUCH AS TO UNDERMINE ITS CHARACTER OR VITALITY AS A SHOPPING FRONTAGE. A2 USES WILL BE PERMITTED ELSEWHERE WITHIN THE TOWN CENTRE.
   
 
POLICY S5 - Town Centre Food and Drink Uses
  THE LOSS, BY CHANGE OF USE OR REDEVELOPMENT, OF GROUND FLOOR CLASS A1 SHOPS IN THE PRIMARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES OF THE TOWN CENTRE TO RESTAURANTS, CAFES, HOT FOOD TAKE-AWAYS, PUBLIC HOUSES AND OTHER CLASS A3 USES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED. ADDITIONAL A3 USES WILL BE PERMITTED IN THE SECONDARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES PROVIDED THAT THE OVERALL CONCENTRATION OF NON-SHOP USES IN A PARTICULAR LENGTH OF FRONTAGE WOULD NOT BE SUCH AS TO UNDERMINE ITS CHARACTER OR VITALITY AS A SHOPPING FRONTAGE. ELSEWHERE WITHIN THE TOWN CENTRE, A3 USES WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THERE WILL BE NO MATERIAL ADVERSE EFFECT ON RESIDENTIAL AMENITIES.
 
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POLICY S6 - Non-Retail Uses
  USES WHICH ARE NON-CLASS A1, A2, A3 OR AMUSEMENT CENTRES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED ON GROUND FLOORS IN THE PRIMARY OR SECONDARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES OF THE TOWN CENTRE.
   
7.13 A number of uses other than shops are traditionally found in the town centre and these can serve valuable functions. However, ancillary uses should not be allowed to displace the main shopping uses from the most important streets, nor to detract from the shopping character of a particular length of frontage. Class A2 uses differ from class A1 uses generally in that visits are ancillary to visits to shops and other uses, and are not made by children or families, whilst their frontages generally lack interest, with little variety in display. Whilst visits to class A3 uses are also generally ancillary, these uses can also function as attractions, particularly where they cater for specialist demands or operate outside main shopping hours. The Proposals Map identifies the primary shopping frontages of the town centre, where the further loss of any ground floor shop units to non-shop use (defined as uses falling outside class A1 of the Use Classes Order 1987) will normally be resisted. These streets, with the exception of High Row, are occupied almost entirely by shops and it is important to the economic well-being of the town centre that they remain so.
7.14 High Row, with a number of long-established banks and building societies, has reached a critical balance between shop and non-shop uses: further breaks in the shopping frontage could jeopardise the shopping function not only of the street itself, but also of much of the southern part of the town centre which is dependent on high pedestrian flows along High Row. Northgate is the principal outdoor shopping street in the town centre, with a large proportion of modern shop units with rear-servicing which meet a demand which is not provided for elsewhere. It remains almost entirely in shop use, continues to attract substantial investment from property owners and shop operators, and contains a number of national retailers. It is important that this role is maintained. Considerable efforts have been made, and will continue to be made, in these streets as elsewhere in the centre, to improve conditions for shoppers (Proposal T15).
7.15 Also identified on the Proposals Map are the secondary shopping frontages, where ancillary class A2 and A3 retail activities such as building societies and restaurants will normally be acceptable, intermixed with shops, provided that they do not over-concentrate to the detriment of the shopping function. Some of the secondary frontages, such as Post House Wynd and Blackwellgate, are particularly important as links to the more peripheral shopping streets such as Skinnergate and Grange Road.
7.16 Activities not generally found in shopping areas and not serving visiting members of the public will not normally be acceptable in ground floor units in either the primary or secondary shopping frontages. There are adequate opportunities for these uses, such as offices, to locate elsewhere in the town centre, including on upper floors of buildings in the main shopping streets. Policy S19 below gives specific guidance on the location of amusement centres.
7.17 The main exception to Policies S4, S5 and S6 is within the area of Mechanics’, Clark’s and Buckton’s Yards, where the following policy applies.
 
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POLICY S7 - Mechanics’, Clark’s and Buckton’s Yards
  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SMALL SHOPS, RESTAURANTS AND CAFES WILL BE ENCOURAGED WITHIN MECHANICS’, CLARK’S AND BUCKTON’S YARDS. IN THE INTERESTS OF SAFEGUARDING THE SPECIAL CHARACTER OF THE YARDS, USES OTHER THAN THOSE WITHIN CLASSES A1 AND A3 WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IN GROUND FLOOR FRONTAGES, AND THE LATE OPENING OF ANY ADDITIONAL PREMISES TAKEN INTO CLASS A3 USE WILL BE RESTRICTED.
   
7.18 These three narrow yards running between High Row and Skinnergate are the subject of a continuing scheme of environmental improvement aimed at enhancing their special architectural and historic character. Their location close to busy shopping streets has helped them evolve in recent years as havens for small, specialist, independent shops and cafes, complementing the major retailers elsewhere in the town centre and contributing to the distinctiveness of Darlington as a shopping venue. The retail uses are now important elements of the character of the yards which the Council does not wish to see undermined by conflicting uses such as offices (including class A2 offices) or pubs. A small area of cleared land in Clark’s Yard is being made available by the Council for new small-scale retail development.
   
 
POLICY S8 - Window Displays
  ON DEVELOPMENT, REDEVELOPMENT OR CHANGE OF USE AFFECTING THE GROUND FLOOR OF PREMISES IN THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES, THE PROVISION AND MAINTENANCE OF WINDOW DISPLAYS WILL BE REQUIRED BY CONDITION, UNLESS THE ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER OF THE BUILDING MAKES THEM INAPPROPRIATE, IN ORDER TO MINIMISE OR TO AVOID THE INTERRUPTION OF CONTINUOUS SHOP FACADES.
   
7.19 Shops, in their own interest, normally maintain window displays, but this is not necessarily the case with other kinds of development commonly found in the main shopping streets. The loss of window displays can disrupt an otherwise continuous shopping frontage and lead to a decline in the interest and attractiveness of a street. Uses establishing themselves in the main shopping streets will normally be required to retain existing window space or, where this does not already exist, to provide and maintain adequate displays. Exceptions may be made in the case of listed buildings with frontages unsuited to display windows, or where such displays would otherwise be inappropriate, such as on public houses, where appropriate architectural interest will be sought instead.
   
 
TOWN CENTRE FRINGES
 
POLICY S9 - Fringe Shopping Areas
  SMALL NEW SHOPS, LIMITED EXTENSIONS TO EXISTING SHOPS, AND CLASS A2 SERVICE USES WILL BE PERMITTED IN THE DEFINED FRINGE SHOPPING AREAS.
   
7.20 On the fringe of the town centre, radiating out for short distances, are five small shopping areas containing both local shops and services and some businesses serving the town as a whole. Traders here have the advantage of relatively central locations without the higher rents of the town centre and many provide a useful specialist service to shoppers. The areas, along Northgate, Parkgate, Victoria Road, Duke Street and Bondgate, are defined on the Proposals Map. Generally, any significant new retail development should be directed to the town centre rather than here, in order to maintain the compactness of the centre. However, small-scale development which does not conflict with other policies of the Plan will be permitted in order to ensure that the buildings remain in efficient use, and to assist in the retention of a wide range of retailing in the town. A ‘small’ shop is defined here as one with up to 100m2 gross floorspace, and ‘limited extensions’ as being those of 10% or less of gross floorspace. Policies S18 and S19 below provide guidance on the establishment in these areas of food and drink uses and amusement centres.
 
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DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES
 
POLICY S10 - Safeguarding the District and Local Centres
  THE COUNCIL WILL SAFEGUARD AND ENHANCE THE VITALITY AND VIABILITY OF THE DISTRICT CENTRES AT NORTH ROAD AND COCKERTON, AND THE LOCAL CENTRES AT YARM ROAD, NEASHAM ROAD, WHINFIELD AND MOWDEN, AND IN PARTICULAR WILL SAFEGUARD THEIR ROLE FOR FOOD SHOPPING. DEVELOPMENT WHICH WHEN TAKEN WITH OTHER RECENT AND PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS WOULD UNDERMINE THAT VITALITY AND VIABILITY WILL NOT BE PERMITTED.
 
POLICY S11 - New Development in the District and Local Centres
  SHOPPING DEVELOPMENT, INCLUDING (SUBJECT TO THE IMPACT PROVISIONS OF POLICY S12) NEW FOOD SUPERMARKETS UP TO 2500m2 GROSS FLOORSPACE, AND CLASS A2 SERVICE USES WILL BE PERMITTED WITHIN AND IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT TO THE DEFINED DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES PROVIDED THAT THEY ARE PHYSICALLY INTEGRATED WITH AND HAVE GOOD PEDESTRIAN LINKS WITH THE REST OF THE CENTRE. CAR PARKING SPACES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR SHARED USE BY THE PUBLIC. THE MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN SHOP ENTRANCES AND INCOMING AND OUTGOING BUS STOPS SHOULD NOT EXCEED 200m WHERE A LEVEL WALK IS INVOLVED, OR 100m IN ANY OTHER SITUATION. PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION RESTRICTING THE HOURS OF OPERATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL AMENITY REQUIRES SAFEGUARDING.
   
7.21 The district and local centres of the town are identified on the Proposals Map. All have supermarkets or superstores at their heart and over recent years they have taken over increasingly from the town centre as the main providers of everyday shopping items, especially food. They benefit from having large areas of car parking available, but are also positioned so as to be accessible to non-car users in their particular part of town. The centres have up to forty other shops and services, in addition to the large stores. The degree to which the food stores underpin the district and local centres varies, but the Council will view unfavourably any proposals which might jeopardise this essential role of any of the centres, and thus the future health of the centres themselves. Proposals to improve and expand retail facilities at the district and local centres will be welcomed provided that they do not in turn adversely affect other district and local centres or the town centre, nor detract from residential amenity. Conditions will be attached limiting opening hours and times for servicing where appropriate in the context of Policies E48 and H15. Policies S18 and S19 below give guidance on the establishment in the district and local centres of food and drink uses and amusement centres respectively.
7.22 It is important that new shops and other developments are sited so that the public can safely and conveniently walk between them and existing parts of the centre, including bus stops and car parks. The district and local centres have social, community, health or education activities in or near them, which adds to their attractiveness, and thus the public can combine a number of visits in one trip.
 
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OTHER MAJOR NEW SHOPPING DEVELOPMENT
   
7.23 Food supermarkets and superstores, retail warehouses dealing in specified ranges of goods, and businesses selling large items such as caravans, timber and building materials can be capable of development without detriment to the vitality or viability of the town centre. Existing retail sites, and schemes with planning permission, together provide sufficient overall floorspace to meet likely demand for the foreseeable future. The Plan therefore does not identify any additional sites for retail development outside existing centres but, rather, sets out in policies the criteria against which any future proposals will be assessed.
   
 
POLICY S12 - New Food Stores
  NEW FOOD SUPERSTORES OR SUPERMARKETS WILL ONLY BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THERE WOULD BE NO DAMAGING IMPACT ON THE VITALITY AND VIABILITY OF ANY OF THE DEFINED TOWN, DISTRICT OR LOCAL CENTRES. PROPOSALS FOR STORES EXCEEDING 2500m2 GROSS FLOORSPACE SHOULD BE SUPPORTED BY AN ASSESSMENT OF THEIR INDIVIDUAL AND / OR CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON ANY OF THESE CENTRES. PROPOSALS FOR SUPERSTORES OR SUPERMARKETS OUTSIDE THE EXISTING CENTRES WILL BE PERMITTED ONLY WHERE:
  A. THERE ARE NO SUITABLE SITES AVAILABLE WITHIN, OR ON THE EDGE OF, THESE CENTRES;
  B. THE SITE WOULD BE EASILY ACCESSIBLE BY A CHOICE OF MEANS OF TRANSPORT; AND,
  C. THE DEVELOPMENT WOULD NOT ADD SIGNIFICANTLY TO OVERALL TRAVEL AND CAR USE.
  PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION RESTRICTING THE HOURS OF OPERATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL AMENITY REQUIRES SAFEGUARDING.
     
 
POLICY S13 - Retail Warehouses
  NEW RETAIL WAREHOUSES WILL BE PERMITTED WITHIN OR ON THE EDGE OF THE DEFINED TOWN, DISTRICT OR LOCAL CENTRES AND FRINGE SHOPPING AREAS. PROPOSALS WILL BE PERMITTED ELSEWHERE ONLY PROVIDED THAT:
  A. THERE ARE NO SUITABLE SITES AVAILABLE IN THE ABOVE LOCATIONS;
  B. THEY ARE COMBINED WITH AN EXISTING OUT-OF-CENTRE RETAIL DEVELOPMENT, OR ARE WITHIN A PROPOSED RETAIL PARK;
  C. THERE WOULD BE NO DAMAGING IMPACT ON THE VITALITY AND VIABILITY OF ANY OF THE DEFINED CENTRES;
  D. THE SITE WOULD BE EASILY ACCESSIBLE BY A CHOICE OF MEANS OF TRANSPORT; AND,
  E. THE DEVELOPMENT WOULD NOT ADD SIGNIFICANTLY TO OVERALL TRAVEL AND CAR USE.
  PLANNING PERMISSION FOR PROPOSALS OTHER THAN WITHIN THE TOWN CENTRE WILL BE SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS:
  1. PREVENTING THE SUB-DIVISION OF THE WAREHOUSES INTO A LARGER NUMBER OF SMALLER SHOPS;
  2. PROHIBITING THE SALE OF SPECIFIED MAIN RANGES OF GOODS, NORMALLY FOOD AND DRINK, FASHION ITEMS, BOOKS, STATIONERY, TOYS, GAMES, HANDBAGS, LUGGAGE, MUSIC, SPORTS GOODS, JEWELLERY, PERFUME AND TOILETRIES; AND,
  3. RESTRICTING THE HOURS OF OPERATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL AMENITY REQUIRES SAFEGUARDING.
 
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7.24 Food superstores exist within the North Road, Whinfield and Neasham Road district and local centres and further superstores have opened recently at Victoria Road (on the edge of the town centre) and at Morton Park. A Food Shopping Study carried out for the Council in 1994 concluded that no further superstore permissions should be granted until the impact of recent developments could be measured. The practicability of evaluating effects on the vitality and viability of the existing shopping centres may, for a few years, be affected by the continuing impact of the newer stores. The situation will be kept under continuous review by the Council with the aim of making and publicising a re-assessment as soon as it is realistic to do so.
7.25 In the meantime, the Council will expect any superstore proposal to be supported by an impact assessment which takes the on-going effects of recent developments into account. Prospective developers of any supermarket or superstore will also be required to adopt a 'sequential’ approach to site selection, demonstrating that sites within and on the edge of existing shopping centres have been thoroughly assessed before less central locations are put forward. The first preference should always be for sites within existing centres. Even outside existing centres, proposed development sites will need to be genuinely accessible to a significant proportion of customers and staff arriving by public transport, on foot and by bicycle, and the proposal will be expected not to lead to any material increase in overall travel, in particular car use.
7.26 Retail warehouses are large, single-level stores specialising in the sale of household goods (such as carpets, furniture and electrical goods) and bulky DIY items including gardening equipment. They cater mainly for the car-borne trade but also sell many small items and often have home delivery services so it is important that they are also accessible for non-car users. Developers will again be expected to adopt a sequential approach to site selection, with first preference being given to locations in existing centres. The sporadic siting of retail warehouses away from centres should be avoided. Conditions prohibiting the sale of goods which are normally found in the town centre, and preventing subdivision into smaller units, will be attached to any permissions to protect the centre’s vitality and viability. Out of centre proposals will need to be in accessible locations, and to have no significant adverse impact on overall travel and car use.
7.27 All major new shopping developments must accord with the Council’s policies and standards for parking (Policies T24 to T26) and access (Policies T8 and T13).
7.28 New retail developments will not normally be acceptable outside the development limits for the town (Policy E2), on open land (Policy E3) or on sites allocated for other purposes. Development should not detract from residential amenity. Where appropriate in the context of Policies E48 and H15, conditions will be attached limiting opening hours and times for servicing.
7.29 Separate policies below apply to the retailing of specific large items such as cars (Policy S20) and goods sold in garden centres (Policy S22).
   
 
POLICY S14 - Recycling Facilities
  PLANNING PERMISSIONS TO BUILD OR EXTEND LARGE NEW FOOD STORES OR RETAIL WAREHOUSES WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION REQUIRING THE PROVISION OF PUBLIC WASTE RECYCLING FACILITIES, UNLESS ADEQUATE FACILITIES ALREADY EXIST IN THE VICINITY.
   
7.30 Large retail developments are suitable locations for the stationing of recycling receptacles for glass, cans, newspapers etc. They are accessible, regularly visited, have extensive surface car parking and are responsible for generating much of the initial material. Food stores in particular will normally be expected to incorporate provision for such facilities into their design. The recycling schemes are managed by the Borough Council.
 
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POLICY S15 - Shopping Trolleys
  PLANNING PERMISSIONS TO BUILD OR EXTEND LARGE NEW FOOD STORES OR RETAIL WAREHOUSES WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION REQUIRING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE RETURN OF SHOPPING TROLLEYS TO A SUITABLE POINT OR POINTS WITHIN THE APPLICATION AREA.
   
7.31 The Council has been concerned in recent years to minimise the environmental and road safety nuisance of shopping trolleys belonging to stores being discarded around the town. Future developments utilising a trolley system will be expected to operate schemes to prevent their misuse, for example a coin deposit scheme.
 
LOCAL SHOPS
 
POLICY S16 - Small Local Shops
  LOCAL SHOPS OF UP TO 100m2 GROSS FLOORSPACE, AND EXTENSIONS TO EXISTING SMALL SHOPS WHICH DO NOT AS EXTENDED EXCEED THAT LIMIT, WILL BE PERMITTED IN OR ADJOINING THE RESIDENTIAL AREAS PROVIDED THAT THERE WILL BE NO MATERIAL ADVERSE EFFECT ON RESIDENTIAL AMENITIES OR ON HIGHWAY SAFETY.
 
POLICY S17 - Shops in New Housing Developments
  SITES SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALL SHOP OF UP TO 100m2 GROSS FLOORSPACE ON THE HOUSING SITE AT HARROWGATE FARM (PROPOSAL H5.11). IN THE EVENT OF THERE BEING NO COMMERCIAL DEMAND ON COMPLETION OF THE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT, THE SHOP SITE MAY BE MADE AVAILABLE FOR RESIDENTIAL USE.
   
7.32 Individual corner shops and village shops, and small concentrations of traders in shopping parades or groups, still have a part to play in meeting residents’ shopping needs and providing a focus for community identity. The Council will support the retention of existing small local shops and the development of new ones where there will be no adverse effects on amenity. A reasonable walking distance is considered here to be 400m. The intention is that the new or expanded shops will help meet the everyday needs of residents living within a reasonable walking distance. A ‘small’ shop is defined as one up to 100m2 gross floorspace. The housing site listed above, when developed would result in some residents living more than 400m from an existing local shop if provision were not made.
   
 
OTHER RETAIL POLICIES
 
POLICY S18 - Food and Drink Uses Outside the Town Centre
  RESTAURANTS, CAFES, HOT FOOD TAKE-AWAYS, PUBLIC HOUSES AND OTHER CLASS A3 USES WILL BE PERMITTED IN THE DEFINED FRINGE SHOPPING AREAS, DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES, WITHIN SMALLER ESTABLISHED GROUPS OF SHOPS AND IN ASSOCIATION WITH OTHER RETAIL, EMPLOYMENT OR LEISURE/RECREATION DEVELOPMENT ON SITES WHICH ARE EASILY ACCESSIBLE BY FOOT, CYCLE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT, PROVIDED THAT THERE WILL BE NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON RESIDENTIAL AMENITIES OR ON HIGHWAY SAFETY. PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION RESTRICTING THE HOURS OF OPERATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL AMENITY REQUIRES SAFEGUARDING.
   
7.33 Food and drink uses such as pubs and take-aways are traditionally found in shopping areas and these are generally the most appropriate locations. Other suitable locations can be in conjunction with food superstores, retail parks, or leisure / recreation developments, where proposals can provide opportunities for the public to make linked trips and are accessible by a choice of means of transport, or employment areas, where the proposals provide for the needs of local employees. However, many of these areas are close to housing, and the Council will need to be satisfied that new proposals will not cause undue disturbance to residents by virtue of noise, cooking smells, litter, car parking etc. Proposed developments alongside main roads will not be acceptable if they could cause traffic problems.
 
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POLICY S19 - Amusement Centres
  AMUSEMENT CENTRES WILL BE PERMITTED IN THE TOWN CENTRE OTHER THAN IN PRIMARY SHOPPING FRONTAGES, AND IN THE DEFINED FRINGE SHOPPING AREAS, DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES AND SMALLER ESTABLISHED GROUPS OF SHOPS, PROVIDED THAT:
  A. THE AMENITIES ENJOYED BY NEIGHBOURING OCCUPIERS ARE PROTECTED AGAINST NOISE, UNSIGHTLINESS OR GENERAL DISTURBANCE; AND,
  B. THE OVERALL CONCENTRATION OF NON-SHOP USES WOULD NOT BE SUCH AS TO UNDERMINE THE CHARACTER OR VITALITY OF ANY SHOPPING AREA OR LENGTH OF SHOPPING FRONTAGE.
  PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION RESTRICTING THE HOURS OF OPERATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL AMENITY REQUIRES SAFEGUARDING.
   
7.34 Certain kinds of amusement centres, in particular those providing amusement-with-prizes machines, are now accepted as being appropriate ancillary uses in some shopping areas. The Council will normally resist such uses in the primary frontages of the town centre, where it considers the retention of retail shops to be essential to the well-being of the town centre. They are more appropriate in secondary frontages or in lower-order shopping areas where a mix of retail and service uses are often found, provided that there is no detrimental impact on the area. They will not normally be permitted where they will detract from the amenity of nearby dwellings, schools, churches, hospitals or hotels, nor from the character or appearance of a conservation area.
   
 
POLICY S20 - Sale of Large Items
  DEVELOPMENTS PRIMARILY INVOLVING THE SALE OR DISPLAY OF CARS, CARAVANS, GARDEN SHEDS, GREENHOUSES, TIMBER, BUILDING MATERIALS AND SIMILAR LARGE ITEMS WILL BE PERMITTED WITHIN THE DEVELOPMENT LIMITS PROVIDED THAT THERE WILL BE NO MATERIAL ADVERSE EFFECT ON AMENITIES ENJOYED BY NEIGHBOURING OCCUPIERS OR VISUAL AMENITY OR ON HIGHWAY SAFETY. PLANNING PERMISSION WILL BE SUBJECT TO A CONDITION RESTRICTING THE RETAIL USE TO SUCH ITEMS.
   
7.35 Car sales, and the retailing of certain other very bulky goods, are not normally possible from within shopping areas and are presently found in a variety of locations in the town and some larger villages. In some instances the style of marketing and display can be detrimental to the appearance or character of an area, particularly near housing, and can cause problems for users of adjacent roads. The Council will pay particular attention to these aspects. General retailing will not normally be appropriate from these locations and will be restricted accordingly. For the avoidance of doubt, this policy does not apply to the development of retail warehouses, which normally sell a wider range of items (including some smaller items) and are more appropriately sited in accessible retail locations; retail warehouses are the subject of Policy S13 above.
   
 
POLICY S21 - Petrol Filling Stations
  THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PETROL FILLING STATIONS AND RELATED ROADSIDE SERVICES WILL BE PERMITTED WITHIN THE DEVELOPMENT LIMITS PROVIDED THAT THERE WILL BE NO MATERIAL ADVERSE EFFECT ON RESIDENTIAL AMENITIES OR ON HIGHWAY SAFETY. THEY WILL NOT NORMALLY BE PERMITTED ELSEWHERE.
 
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7.36 Filling stations can be brash, discordant features in the countryside and, when established, can lead to pressure for further related development on-site such as restaurants and hotels. The Council considers that future filling station requirements can be adequately met from existing rural sites or from new sites within settlements. Within the town and villages filling stations can sometimes fulfil a useful subsidiary role as ‘local shops’ for nearby residents.
   
 
POLICY S22 - Garden Centres
  THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW GARDEN CENTRES, AND THE EXTENSION OF EXISTING CENTRES, WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THAT THERE WILL BE NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON THE RESIDENTIAL AMENITIES, THE CHARACTER OR APPEARANCE OF THE COUNTRYSIDE OR ON HIGHWAY SAFETY.
   
7.37 Garden centres are best sited close to the population they serve, in order to minimise the need to travel and to make them accessible to non-car users as well as car users, but other appropriate locations may be considered.
   
 
POLICY S23 - Sales from Factories
  RETAILING FROM FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED ON THE PREMISES WILL ONLY BE PERMITTED IN FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS OF UP TO 100m2 GROSS FLOORSPACE.
   
7.38 Some retail activities on industrial premises are incidental to the main operations and do not require planning permission. Otherwise retailing from factories and industrial units is inappropriate except for small units, e.g. craft workshops. (Policy EP5 considers more fully the circumstances under which uses other than those within classes B1, B2 and B8 may be permitted in employment areas.)